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  • Nyenius 5:18 am on March 31, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , mewujudkan ide   

    Begitu Sebuah Ide Digulirkan… 

    Segala ide akan terasa sederhana dan mudah, ketika masih berada di dalam kepala kita. Sekali ide itu diutarakan kepada orang lain, apalagi itu suatu kumpulan orang-orang banyak, dia akan berkembang liar diluar kendali kita. Kepada para penggagas, ada baiknya kita pahami hal ini. Supaya tidak terkaget-kaget dan parahnya mundur langkah alias surut ke belakang.

    Sudah beberapa waktu ini saya membiasakan diri saya untuk menjalankan bersit ide yang ada di kepala. Semua itu demi ketajaman dan kepekaan saya akan ide. Mana ide sampah dan mana ide yang ok. Tapi kita tidak akan membicarakan itu, kita akan bicarakan mengenai sifat ide begitu digulirkan, diungkapkan, dijalani.

    Pada tahun ‘99, ketika saya dilantik menjadi ketua teater di SMA, saya memiliki ide untuk memberi bentuk baru kepada teater SMA itu (yang waktu itu menurut saya terlalu lembek), dengan bentuk teater yang saya ikuti ketika SMP di Jakarta. Malam begitu saya dilantik, saya diberi kesempatan memimpin latihan malam itu sambil ditonton senior teater yang lama. Itulah pertama kali saya ungkapkan dan implementasikan ide tentang ‘teater yang keras’ pada teater SMA saya, tidak kurang 2 orang kena timpuk sendal oleh saya malam itu.

    Tapi itu sekedar ide saya, respons dari orang-orang yang saya paparkan ide tersebut berbeda, mulai dari senior yang sudah tidak jadi pengurus sampai ke teman-teman anggota teater semua bereaksi berbeda. Dan sadar atau tidak mereka mengajukan kontra-ide, sehingga terjadilah negosiasi-negosiasi yang melahirkan bentuk teater yang sama sekali beda dari yang ingin saya terapkan.

    Pada tahun ‘99 juga, saya dan beberapa orang kawan, dibantu bimbingan beberapa guru, mendirikan sebuah klub ‘pencinta alam’ dalam format yang jauh berbeda dengan organisasi pencinta alam pada umumnya. Tanpa diksar (pendidikan dasar), tanpa keharusan pengembaraan/pendakian, dan terutama tanpa konsep senioritas yang sangat kami benci. Kami pun menolak sebutan PA (pencinta alam), kami lebih suka menyebut diri Tim Petualang, jadilah Mothahari Adventure Team.

    Waktu berjalan, kepengurusan berganti. Hanya melalui 2 pergantian kepengurusan, konsep tersebut telah berkembang jauh dari konsep awal. Mulai ada diksar, tapi dengan ‘format MAT’. Kemudian entah pada angkatan ke-5 atau ke-7, saya menemukan anggota MAT aktif pada cium tangan kepada para senior MAT, kalau ketemu atau mau pulang, atau setidaknya membungkuk hormat pada mereka.

    Pada tahun 2002 waktu kuliah di jurusan teater, saya mengungkapkan ide (yang saya ambil dari pengalaman di jogja), untuk meramaikan jalanan bandung dengan seni. Yaitu dengan menggelar pertunjukan dadakan pada malam hari di pinggir jalan. Entah itu mau baca puisi, monolog, latihan teater, dan yang terpenting, tanpa mempedulikan apa ada penontonnya atau tidak. Dan di lapangan terjadilah improvisasi-improvisasi dari konsep awal itu, pelaksanannya di pinggir lapangan gasibu tepat di seberang gedung sate Bandung. Trotoar dihiasi puluhan lilin, ada seni modern semacam break dance ikut tampil disitu, penonton boleh ikut mengekspresikan dirinya (ikut tampil; walau rekor kita cuma ditonton oleh 2 orang).

    Akhir-akhir ini, pada awal 2011, saya mengajukan ide membuat komunitas/klub Zippo Indonesia kepada beberapa hobiis Zippo lainnya. Mereka sepakat untuk membentuk komunitas itu dan mulai membangunnya. Pada satu bulan pertama saja sudah banyak perubahan dari konsep awal yang diajukan dan disepakati bersama.

    Hakikat ide adalah berkembang, dinamis. Apalagi ketika ide itu menyentuh kepala-kepala yang berlainan, yang juga memiliki ide (gambaran) tersendiri mengenai ide yang mereka terima. Ketika sekumpulan orang menerima ide dasar akan sesuatu, mereka akan berusaha sebaik mungkin mengembangkan ide tersebut, bahkan mungkin ada yang berusaha mengakuisisinya. Saat itulah dinamika perkembangan ide terjadi, saat itulah ide -bagi si penggagasnya- menjadi seorang anak yang dilepas ke alam bebas.

    Saya sangat menikmati perdebatan mengenai pengembangan sebuah ide, karena bagi saya, konflik tersebut merupakan sebuah indikator penting bahwa orang-orang punya rasa memiliki atas ide tersebut, dan juga indikator bahwa ide itu akan terus berkembang mencapai kematangan.

    Dan dari perjalanan itu, saya juga menemui orang-orang yang kelewat lekat dengan kondisi saat awal mula sebuah ide diwujudkan. Sehingga seiring waktu berjalan, dan ide tersebut perlahan-lahan berkembang, dia tidak menerimanya dan mengasingkan diri dari ide tersebut (tepatnya orang yang menjalankannya). Dan dari situ juga saya belajar memang ada pokok-pokok ide yang tidak boleh berubah, kecuali dia memang hendak ditransformasikan ke dalam bentuk ide yang (hampir) sepenuhnya baru, sebuah antithesis dari ide sebelumnya. Itu bentuk transformasi ide yang lebih jauh lagi, dia berubah ke bentuk yang baru. Saat itulah (dari ide sebelumnya), lahir sebuah ide yang sering kita bilang ‘baru’.

     
  • Nyenius 2:29 am on March 31, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , cdburnerxp, disc copy, , ISO image, virtual clone drive   

    Bagaimana Membuat .iso Image di Windows 7 

    ISO image (International Organization for Standardization) merupakan sebuah arsip file yang berisikan kumpulan files berikut informasi filesystem seperti boot code. Gampangnya ISO adalah salinan (backup) cd/dvd dalam satu file saja. Dengan menyalin cd/dvd dalam bentuk ISO image, selain memudahkan pengarsipan, kita juga seolah menyimpan kondisi CD/DVD dengan segala file dan fungsi tambahannya (bootable misalnya). Mengapa kita butu iso image? Kita butuh untuk membackup dvd OS atau software-software penting dan original kita misalnya.

    Ok lanjut ke teknis. Untuk mewujudkan keinginan kita ini secara gratis dan legal, kita akan menggunakan sebuah software bernama CDBurnerXP. Software gratis dengan kemampuan software berbayar. Kita hanya akan fokus pada fitur copy cd/dvd.

    Ada dua cara membuat ISO image menggunakan CDBurnerXP; pertama melalui fitur ‘copy cd’, kedua melalui fitur burn kompilasi (create datadisc).

    Melalui metoda Copy or Grab Disc (membuat iso image dari cd / dvd):

    1. Download aplikasi cdBurnerXP disini:
    2. Install pada komputer Anda, dan kemudian jalankan.
    3. Ini merupakan tampilan depannya.
    4. Double-click pada menu Copy or grab disc.

    5. Pada tab ‘Copy Options’ pilih ‘Hard Disc’, rubah filetype menjadi ‘ISO (single track)’,  dan berikan nama file untuk ISO image yang akan dibuat dengan mengklik tombol ‘…’ (titik-titik).
    6. Dari situ akan terbuka jendela pemberian nama file. Masukan nama file ISO yang Anda inginkan dan klik ‘save’
    7. Setelah semuanya ter seting seperti pada gambar di bawah ini, Klik tombol ‘Copy disc’
    8. Ini gambar ketika proses copy cd berlangsung.
    9. Dan apabila copy disc berhasil, maka akan muncul dialog box baru menyatakan proses sudah selesai.
    10. Inilah dia sederetan hasil backupnya Smile

    NOTES: Apabila CD yang akan Anda copy dalam keadaan rusak, kemungkinan besar proses pengkopian akan gagal.

    Melalui metoda Create Data Disc (membuat iso image dari file yang ada di hard disk):

    1. Buka aplikasinya dan pilih “Data Disc”
    2. Pilih file yang akan dikompilasi, kemudian klik tombol ‘Add’ atau drag ke area dibawah daftar file.
    3. Klik menu “Files > Save compilation as ISO file..”
    4. Berikan nama file ISO seperti yang Anda inginkan.
    5. Begitu di klik save, proses kompilasi menjadi file iso pun berjalan.
    6. And we’re done! Smile plok plok plok….

     

    ***Keterangan di wikipedia mengenai ISO image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iso_image.
    ***File ISO image ini bisa di burn-ulang ke cd / dvd melalui CDBurnerXP juga.
    ***File ISO image ini bisa langsung dibuka di komputer menggunakan aplikasi virtual disc. Untuk Windows 7 salah satu yang gratis dan selama ini saya gunakan adalah : Virtual Clone Drive

     
  • Nyenius 3:10 pm on March 30, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , ,   

    Zippo Manufacturing Company: Information from Answers.com 

    Incorporated: 1932
    NAIC: 339999 All Other Miscellaneous Manufacturing; 339911 Jewelry (Except Costume) Manufacturing; 332211 Cutlery and Flatware (Except Precious) Manufacturing; 339941 Pen and Mechanical Pencil Manufacturing

    Zippo Manufacturing Company is world famous for its Zippo windproof lighter, its lifetime guarantee, and the distinctive “click” it makes when opened. The company has sold more than 400 million lighters since its founding in 1932 and each year produces thousands of different designs, including ones aimed specifically at collectors. In addition to its trademark rectangular pocket lighter, the design of which has been little changed since its early 1930s launch, Zippo in 2002 introduced the MPL (or Multi-Purpose Lighter), a long, slender model designed to light candles, grills, fireplaces, and the like–a break from the traditional idea of the “cigarette lighter.” The dominant maker of refillable lighters in the United States, with an estimated market share of 40 percent, Zippo also sells its lighters in more than 120 other countries, with Japan being its largest export market. Following the launch of a big overseas push in the mid-1980s, Zippo began to derive 60 percent of its sales from exports. Since diversifying for the first time in 1962 (when a tape measure was introduced), Zippo manufacturers and sells such items as pocket knives, money clips, and writing instruments. The company owns W.R. Case Sons Cutlery Company, a venerable maker of high-quality pocket, hunting, fishing, camping, and utility knives that, like Zippo, is based in the small Allegheny Mountain town of Bradford, Pennsylvania. Another subsidiary, Zippo Fashion Italia S.r.l., based in Vicenza, Italy, produces a variety of Zippo-branded leather goods, including handbags, belts, wallets, and briefcases, for sale through more than 1,500 boutiques and shops in Europe.

    George Grant Blaisdell, Zippo’s founder, had a checkered career in business prior to focusing on lighters. His father ran a machine shop in Blaisdell’s hometown of Bradford, Pennsylvania, where Blaisdell started work as a machinist at age 16 (working a 56-hour week at 10 cents an hour), then became a salesman, and at age 20 took over the business. He managed to keep the business afloat during World War I through government contracts, then sold out in 1920. Blaisdell headed for New York; having failed to strike it rich playing the stock market, he returned to Bradford and invested what money remained in local oil wells (through his co-ownership, with his brother Walter, of Blaisdell Oil Company), making a modest living over the next ten years from the proceeds. Thereupon, in the early 1930s he was waiting for the right business opportunity.

    On a muggy summer night in Bradford in 1932, Blaisdell and a friend stepped out on the terrace of the Pennhill Country Club. Blaisdell’s friend used a cumbersome-looking Austrian lighter with a removable brass top to light a cigarette. Blaisdell proceeded to chide his friend: “You’re all dressed up. Why don’t you get a lighter that looks decent?” In an enthusiastic reply, his friend said: “Well, George, it works!”

    Blaisdell was suitably impressed and decided to try to sell the lighters himself. He obtained rights to distribute the product in the United States, imported them for 12 cents each, and attempted to sell them for $1 each. But this venture failed, mainly because of the clumsy nature of the lighter’s design. Blaisdell then decided to design his own lighter, one that was attractive, easy to use, and dependable.

    The resulting original model was rectangular in shape–made from brass tubing with soldered tops and bottoms and square corners–with a chrome-plated hinge soldered on the outside for easy opening and closing. Sized to fit comfortably in a hand, the lighter featured a windhood to protect the wick. Blaisdell liked the name of another recent invention, the zipper, so he christened his lighter the “Zippo” (and his new firm, Zippo Manufacturing Company).

    Production of Zippos began in 1933 in a $10 per month rented room over the Rickerson Pryde garage in Bradford. The shop had $260 in equipment and two employees, from which came lighters retailing for $1.95 with the backing of a lifetime guarantee.

    Sales of the lighters got off to a slow start, with only 1,100 sold during the inaugural production year. Blaisdell tried all kinds of methods to move his brainchild. He gave away samples and gifts to long-distance bus drivers, jewelers, and tobacconists. In December 1937 he paid $3,000 of mostly borrowed money for a full-page ad in Esquire magazine after he found that retailers shied away from products that were not advertised. Unfortunately, Blaisdell did not yet have sufficient distribution to take advantage of the effect of such advertising so this gambit failed to pay off.

    While handling sales himself and struggling to develop a market for his windproof lighter, Blaisdell also tinkered with the design. The lighter was shortened by a quarter inch in 1933, decorative diagonal lines were added in 1934, the hinge was placed on the inside of the case in 1936, and rounded tops and bottoms replaced the square corners of the original design in 1937. This last alteration was important from a production standpoint as the lid and bottom could now be formed as a whole, eliminating the soldering process.

    Blaisdell achieved his first big sales break in 1934 when he started selling Zippos on punchboards, two-cents-per-play gambling games popular in U.S. tobacco and confectionery shops, poolrooms, and cigar stands. Before punchboards were outlawed in 1940, more than 300,000 Zippos were sold through this game of chance, enough for Zippo Manufacturing to achieve its first profits, modest though they were.

    While punchboards were a short-lived chapter in Zippo history, another of Blaisdell’s marketing methods had a much longer-lasting impact. In 1936 an Iowa life insurance company ordered 200 engraved lighters that it gave to its agents as contest prizes. Bradford’s own Kendall Oil Company ordered 500 engraved lighters for its customers and employees. Thus began Zippo’s specialty advertising business, which would become an increasingly important venture in the coming decades.

    With sales increasing thanks to the punchboards and the special markets deals, Blaisdell expanded his operations. First, the production facility expanded into the entire second floor of the Rickerson Pryde building; Blaisdell also added a new office elsewhere in Bradford. Then in 1938 the factory and offices were both moved into a former garage on Barbour Street in Bradford. That same year, Zippo’s first table lighter debuted, a four-and-a-half inch tall model that held four times the fuel of a pocket lighter. The following year Zippo introduced a sophisticated new lighter model, the 14-karat solid gold Zippo, available in both plain and engine-turned models.

    With the onset of U.S. involvement in World War II, the U.S. government forced the halt in production of many consumer products. Blaisdell continued Zippo production, but as he had during World War I, he again moved into government contracting–all Zippos became destined for the U.S. military. With brass reserved for military uses only, the wartime lighters were made of a low-grade steel. Since this provided a poor finish, they were spray-painted black then baked, which produced a crackle finish.

    Blaisdell sold some of these Zippos to the military post exchanges at such a low price that they were then resold for $1.00, making them the most affordable lighter available. He also sent hundreds of lighters to celebrities, including the famous war correspondent Ernie Pyle who then gave them away to servicemen overseas. (Pyle gave Blaisdell the nickname “Mr. Zippo.”) Through these actions, the Zippo became the favorite lighter of GIs, whose loyalty to the product would help fuel postwar sales. Numerous war stories also helped cement the Zippo as an American icon–the Zippo that stopped a bullet, that cooked soup in helmets, that illuminated the darkened instrument panel of an Army pilot’s disabled plane, enabling him to land safely. Zippos also began making frequent appearances in Hollywood movies–notably war movies, such as Casablanca (1942), at first but later films noir–enhancing their iconic status. Meanwhile, wartime production peaked in 1945 when three million Zippos were made.

    The Zippo repair clinic became famous in its own right by backing up the Zippo guarantee. Repaired lighters were returned at no cost to the customer, not even return postage. The clinic provided more than just customer goodwill. It also provided invaluable information about design flaws. Over the long run, the repair clinic found that a faulty or broken hinge was the most common reason for a Zippo to be returned. But soon after World War II, in 1946, Blaisdell discovered that the most frequent repairs were for worn striking wheels–wheels that had been coming from an outside supplier. Blaisdell immediately stopped production to address the problem. He decided to bring production of the wheels in-house and spent $300,000 on a new flint wheel capable of firing a lighter as many as 78,000 times. This top-quality wheel was produced by a knurling operation that remained a company secret.

    Zippo continued to develop new lighter models following the war. In 1947 Town and Country designs were introduced that featured images of pheasants, mallards, geese, sailboats, trout, setters, and horses. Three years later, full cover leather lighters and sterling silver lighters made their debuts.

    Meanwhile, Blaisdell sought to improve his sales force. From 1939 to 1950 Zippo’s entire sales operation consisted of two cigar salesmen, who sold Zippos as a sideline mainly to tobacco wholesalers. The two men each were charged with a vast selling territory. In 1950 Blaisdell established his own sales force, with district managers assigned specific regions. This sales force was not restricted to tobacco wholesalers, but also called on jewelry, drugstore, and grocery wholesalers.

    Also in 1950, Zippo set up its first foreign subsidiary, Zippo Manufacturing Company of Canada Limited. Located in Niagara Falls, Ontario, the company consisted of a small production facility that helped increase overall Zippo capacity, which reached 20,000 lighters a day by 1952. Annual revenues had reached $9.5 million and the company enjoyed healthy after-tax profits of almost 10 percent.

    Zippo continued to expand its facilities in the 1950s and 1960s to meet the growing demand, both domestic and foreign. In 1954 a new building for chrome plating and fabricating, located on Congress Street in Bradford, was completed. New corporate offices were built in 1955 next to the Barbour Street factory in Bradford. During the 1960s the Congress Street plant underwent a series of additions and eventually became the main location for fabricating and assembling Zippo products.

    After 30 years as a lighter-only company, Zippo in 1962 diversified for the first time when it introduced a six-foot flexible-steel pocket tape measure. This was followed by a compact pocketknife and nail file, a money-clip knife, a golf ball, a key holder, a magnifier, and a letter opener. Unlike Zippo lighters, however, none of these products were made available for retail purchase; they were available only through Zippo’s specialty advertising operation, which by the mid-1960s accounted for 40 percent of overall company volume. Zippo boasted of more than 27,000 commercial accounts at the time. All of Zippo’s metal products were backed by the same Zippo pledge: “If for any reason your Zippo will not work, regardless of age or condition–we’ll fix it free.” (For unfixable items, the company sent the customer a replacement.) Zippo even guaranteed its golf ball as playable for 180 holes.

    After introducing the first of a series of lighters with space designs in 1969–the first honoring the landing on the moon–Zippo ushered in the 1970s appropriately enough with a Zodiac lighter series. In 1976 a commemorative bicentennial lighter hit the market, as did an in-fashion denim-like lighter.

    The year 1978 marked the end of an era when Blaisdell died. Ownership of Zippo Manufacturing passed to Blaisdell’s daughters, Harriet Wick and Sarah Dorn, who had worked for the company for years and would continue to do so for years to come but did not wish to run it. They entrusted the presidency to a longtime employee, Robert Galey.

    Unfortunately, throughout the 1970s and into the early 1980s, Zippo’s sales stagnated at about $30 million a year. The firm was manufacturing-oriented and needed to become more marketing-focused in order to get past this plateau. As it turned out, Galey’s stint as president was short-lived since he retired in 1986. Zippo’s third president was Michael Schuler, who had joined the company as controller shortly after Blaisdell’s death and then was promoted to vice-president and controller in 1982. Under Schuler’s leadership, Zippo’s revenues increased fivefold within ten years.

    The spectacular growth of this period was generated by a combination of increased exports, the aggressive targeting of the collector’s and gift/souvenir markets, and creative line extensions. On the export front, Japan remained the top market–one of every four Zippos made in the late 1980s went to Japan–and Western European sales were strong also, but Schuler targeted such emerging areas as China and South Asia and Eastern Europe following the fall of communism. Many of these emerging nations had high percentages of smokers, making them prime Zippo territory. This contrasted sharply with Zippo’s domestic market, where antismoking crusades continued to gain momentum throughout the 1990s. Overall, whereas exports constituted only 40 percent of total company sales in the mid-1980s, by 1995 65 percent of sales originated outside the United States.

    Credit for Zippo’s “discovery” of the collector’s and gift markets for Zippo lighters goes to the person Schuler hired in 1991 as head of sales and marketing, James Baldo. Soon after taking the job, Baldo commissioned customer surveys that showed that 30 percent of Zippo’s customers defined themselves as “collectors.” The surveys also showed that many buyers gave the lighters away as gifts. In response, Zippo began offering premium-priced–$19 to $40–gift/souvenir lighter sets, including ones with licensed brands (Harley-Davidson, Corvette) or images of tourist destinations (Niagara Falls, Empire State Building).

    Then Zippo began offering limited edition “collector” Zippos, directly targeting the collector’s market. In 1992, a 60th anniversary lighter appeared, followed by 1993’s Varga Girl lighter, 1994’s D-Day commemorative lighter, 1995’s Mysteries of the Forest, and 1996’s Zippo Salutes Pinup Girls. Zippo also began producing a collector’s guide and, starting in 1993, sponsored an annual July swap meet at the Bradford headquarters. In 1994 the company took the further step of opening in Bradford the Zippo Family Store and Museum, highly popular with collectors, which was expanded to five times its original size in 1996.

    Zippo had been criticized at times throughout its history for being too conservative, in particular in regard to line extensions. But under Schuler, Zippo began a more aggressive diversification approach, beginning in 1993 with the acquisition of the crosstown W.R. Case Sons Cutlery Company, a firm with annual sales of $15 million. Case was founded in 1889 in Little Valley, New York, but relocated to Bradford in 1905, where it developed a line of pocket knives, hunting knives, household cutlery, and commemoratives. The company had filed for bankruptcy after a difficult period and then was bought out of bankruptcy by a limited partnership, River Associates, in 1990. Case’s products meshed well with Zippo’s and provided Zippo with another avenue into the retail market. Soon after the acquisition, in fact, dual gift sets that included a Case knife and a Zippo lighter were soon being retailed at prices ranging from $50 to $200.

    A much more dramatic extension came via the 1993 license agreement with Japanese clothing manufacturer Itochu Fashion System Co. Itochu gained the right to the Zippo name and soon offered Zippo jeans, gloves, and leather jackets in Japan.

    With antismoking forces gaining steam in the United States, Zippo came up in 1995 with a creative way to keep its brand strong. It introduced the ZipLight pocket flashlight, which was simply a traditional lighter casing with a replaceable battery pack inside. Zippo spent $500,000 on a television advertising campaign to launch this new product, one of its largest campaigns ever.

    The Zippo brand, prematurely declared dead by USA Today in 1989, was clearly alive and well and seemed as ubiquitous as ever. Revenues for 1996 were estimated to have reached a record $150 million. The company was now producing 80,000 lighters a day, and the 300 millionth Zippo lighter rolled off the assembly line that year. One year later, the company opened the Zippo/Case Visitors Center to replace the previous Family Store and Museum. The new visitors center encompassed the Zippo/Case Museum and the Zippo/Case Store and also offered visitors a chance to view repair technicians practicing their craft in the Zippo Repair Clinic.

    Unfortunately for the company, 1996 turned out to be a peak year, as sales dropped off in the late 1990s and into the new century. Zippo’s diversification drive, including the heavily promoted ZipLight, never produced any big winners, and even the push into the collectibles market, while meeting with the approval of many customers, failed to nudge sales higher. Certainly in the U.S. market, part of the problem was the steady decline in smoking: 42 percent of American adults were smokers in 1965, a figure that was down to 24 percent by 1998 and then to 20 percent by 2001. Finally, the muddled ownership situation was another key hindrance. The two daughters of the founder, plus their four children, all had equal control of the company, and all worked there as well. Having six persons equally in charge made it difficult for Zippo to adopt new strategies and led to a certain malaise, particularly following some of the failed attempts to ramp up sales.

    One of the grandchildren of the founder, George B. Duke, began negotiating to buy out his relatives in 1998. By 2000 he, along with his mother, Sarah Dorn, had gained control of the company. Feeling that the firm needed to become more marketing oriented, Duke in 2001 replaced Schuler, the CEO, with Greg Booth, who had years of marketing experience with Kendall Motor Oil, Sunoco, Inc., and the Zippo subsidiary W.R. Case Sons. The new owner and new manager soon commissioned studies by two outside consulting firms, both of which reached the same conclusion, that the Zippo brand was extremely strong and that there were tremendous possibilities for creating a broader line of Zippo products through licensing deals. Based on this research, and to counter the antismoking trends that were hurting sales of lighters, Duke and Booth set an ambitious goal of deriving half of the company’s revenues from products unrelated to tobacco by 2010. They also aimed to double the company’s overall revenues by that same year.

    Ironically, the first new product to come out of this new strategy was in fact a lighter–just not a traditional cigarette lighter. Zippo launched its Multi-Purpose Lighter (MPL) in 2002 via a major television advertising campaign led off on the Home Garden Television cable channel. The MPL was part of the rapidly growing multipurpose lighter category, but it was the first premium refillable model on the market. Offered in two models carrying suggested retail prices of $14.95 and $19.95, the MPL featured a long, slender, ergonomic design with a window showing the level of the butane fuel. With its adjustable flame, the MPL was designed to light candles, lanterns, grills, fireplaces, stoves, campfires, and more. In another break with tradition, Zippo contracted with a Chinese company to make the MPL, but it nonetheless backed it with the usual lifetime guarantee. The company continued to make its traditional pocket lighters in Bradford, despite increasing cut-price competition from low-wage countries.

    Sales of the MPL got off to a good start, with about two million units sold the first year–far exceeding company expectations. Even more encouraging than the numbers, however, was that the people buying the new lighter skewed mostly female and younger than the average Zippo customer. The MPL’s child-resistant safety button was seen to be a key feature in attracting female buyers. Another plus was that the MPL expanded Zippo’s base of retailers as such chains as Bed Bath Beyond Inc. became Zippo sellers for the first time. Unfortunately, in October 2004 Zippo was forced to recall about 100,000 MPLs because in some cases fuel was spilling out of the nozzle when the lighter was first used. The company set up a system to send out replacement lighters to consumers who had purchased the affected models. At the same time, Zippo was developing for release in 2005 a second version of the MPL, one geared to outdoor use when hiking or camping, for example, and featuring a more durable, windproof design and a built-in flashlight.

    While launching the MPL, Zippo also continued to pursue opportunities in the collectors market. In 2002 the company founded an international club for Zippo collectors, Zippo Click, naming it after the distinctive sound of a Zippo lighter opening. For a $20 membership fee, collectors received a number of benefits, including a subscription to a quarterly magazine; access to a members-only web site providing opportunities for communicating with other collectors and for buying, selling, and trading merchandise; and the chance to purchase products available only to members. Just a couple years after its formation, Zippo Click had gained more than 7,000 members. There were also by this time dozens of independent lighter collectors’ clubs with thousands of members around the world.

    In September 2003 Zippo Manufacturing reached another milestone with the production of its 400 millionth lighter. That same year, the company elected to consolidate its North American production in Bradford by shutting down the plant in Niagara Falls, Canada, which had been producing about 500,000 lighters per year for the Canadian market. Also, Zippo was the subject of criticism that year stemming from its sponsorship of a web site, zippotricks.com, featuring hundreds of tricks that can be performed with a Zippo lighter. The National Fire Protection Association and others in the fire safety industry contended that the company, through the web site, was encouraging people to play with fire. Although Zippo officials disagreed with this criticism, they pulled the plug on the site under withering pressure. The web site’s original creator subsequently transformed it into the more generic lightertricks.com, which was unaffiliated with Zippo.

    In the early 2000s Zippo’s leaders were becoming increasingly concerned about the production of cheap knockoff lighters, many of which were being made in China. The company estimated that it was losing as much as a third of its potential worldwide sales to counterfeiters, particularly factories in southern China that were capable of churning out 45,000 fake Zippos a day. Zippo therefore accelerated an effort to trademark the distinctive shape of its lighter–a rectangular metal shell with beveled edges and a gently curving flip-top–around the world. Trademark protection in the United States was granted in 2002. The company pulled back from a related effort to trademark the distinctive Zippo click.

    Coincidentally or not, China was at the center of another development in 2003, the opening of the first Zippo retail store. Located in Hangzhou, a city of several million people located about 110 miles southeast of Shanghai, the store sold only Zippo products but more than just lighters and lighter accessories. It offered Zippo clothing, watches, sunglasses, and leather goods such as wallets and belts. Zippo products were already available in 450 outlets throughout China, a rapidly growing market in which it was estimated that one-third of all the world’s tobacco was consumed and where 40 percent of the adult population were smokers. The company planned to open several more Zippo stores in China.

    In stepping up its efforts to protect its precious brand, Zippo discovered that a family-owned company in Italy called DDM Italia S.r.l. had been selling a line of leather goods–handbags, belts, wallets, and the like–under the Zippo name since the late 1980s. Zippo Manufacturing had not registered the name under clothing and leather categories, which led to a lengthy trademark dispute and contentious court battles. In early 2004 Zippo settled the matter by acquiring DDM Italia for an undisclosed sum. The Italian firm was renamed Zippo Fashion Italia S.r.l., and it continued to operate separately and sell Zippo brand fashion accessories throughout Europe. The Italian subsidiary also began exploring the idea of producing men’s leather accessories for sale both in Europe and elsewhere.

    Zippo at this time was also working hard to develop its first line of Zippo licensed products for release in 2005. These brand-extending items were to be produced under license by other manufacturers, and Booth told the Bradford Era in June 2003 that they would be “stainless steel, rugged, durable, and premium grade products that come with extended or lifetime warranties.” Zippo was particularly investigating flame-related outdoor products, such as grills, patio heaters, and Tiki torches, for the initial launch, to be followed most likely by camping equipment and other outdoor gear, perhaps even mountain bikes. Eventually, the hope was to be able to set up in-store boutiques within retailers offering the entire range of Zippo products. Concurrently under development was a refillable butane pocket lighter aimed at customers not enamored of the smell or messiness of the traditional Zippo lighter fluid.

    As Zippo Manufacturing pursued its aggressive growth and diversification goals, it faced a new challenge. In April 2005 the U.S. Transportation Security Administration began implementing a ban on all lighters within the cabin of aircraft and in checked luggage. Zippo agreed that lighters posed a potential threat within passenger cabins, but objected to the ban on packing them in checked luggage. The firm released a statement in which Booth said, “We have not uncovered one instance in which lighters in checked luggage exploded, caught fire, or otherwise posed a danger to the aircraft.” He said that the ban could potentially cut total Zippo sales by 20 to 30 percent. The ban threatened the company’s gift business, as well as its sales in airports and duty-free shops, and also prevented collectors from taking their wares to and from swap meets and shows when traveling by air. This latest threat seemed to provide added impetus to the drive to extend the Zippo brand beyond lighters.

    Principal Subsidiaries

    W.R. Case Sons Cutlery Company; Zippo Canada Sales, Ltd.; Zippo France S.A.; Zippo GmbH (Germany); Zippo Fashion Italia S.r.l. (Italy); Zippo Italia S.r.l. (Italy); Zippo Japan; Zippo South Africa; Zippo U.K. Limited.

    Principal Competitors

    Société BIC; Swedish Match AB; Tokai Corporation; Swiss Army Brands, Inc.; Ronson Corporation; Buck Knives Inc.

    Further Reading

    Amster, Robin, “Zippo Lighter: American Classics,” Popular Mechanics, August 1994, pp. 44-46.

    Baker, Stephen, “How Zippo Keeps the Flame Lit,” Business Week, November 20, 1995.

    Beardi, Cara, “Zippo’s Eternal Flame: New Campaign Uses Emotion to Take on Disposables,” Advertising Age, August 13, 2001, p. 4.

    Brown, Christie, “Flaming Success,” Forbes, November 18, 1996, pp. 214-16.

    Carlino, Maria, “Zippo Manufacturing Co.,” Journal of Commerce and Commercial, February 3, 1995, p. 4A.

    Collins, Lisa, “Keeping Zippo’s Flame: Name Is Hot, Marketing Lacks Spark,” USA Today, August 11, 1989, pp. 1B-2B.

    Dininny, Paulette, “Keepers of the Flame,” Smithsonian, December 1998, p. 44.

    Dipazquale, Cara B., “Rebel Has New Cause,” Advertising Age, July 8, 2002, p. 3.

    Fogarty, Thomas A., “Keeping Zippo’s Flame Eternal,” USA Today, June 24, 2003, p. B3.

    Fuller, Nicole, and Jim McKay, “Travelers Lightened of Their Lighters,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 15, 2005.

    Galloni, Alessandra, “Lighter Lovers Flip Their Tops at a Zippo Collectors’ Convention,” Wall Street Journal, August 4, 1995, p. B1.

    Kaplan, Andrew, “Scorching Demand for Lighters,” U.S. Distribution Journal, April 15, 1996, p. 14.

    Levy, Robert, “The Mark of Zippo,” Dun’s Review, October 1966, pp. 53-54, 59.

    Lindeman, Teresa F., “Ketchum’s New Zippo Campaign Lights Everything but Cigarettes,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 11, 1998, p. D1.

    McGrath, Molly Wade, Top Sellers, U.S.A.: Success Stories Behind America’s Best-Selling Products from Alka-Seltzer to Zippo, New York: Morrow, 1983, pp. 156-57.

    McKenzie, Bob, “Zippo Lighters a Low-Tech Legend,” Financial Post, January 1, 1994, p. 8.

    Meabon, Linda L., Zippo Manufacturing Company, Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Publishing, 2003, 128 p.

    Pasinski, Jim, “Booth Talks About Zippo,” Bradford (Pa.) Era, June 5, 2003.

    ——, “Despite Rumors, Booth Says Zippo Business Is on the Upswing,” Bradford (Pa.) Era, June 6, 2003.

    “Mr. Zippo,” Fortune, October 1952, p. 220.

    Neuborne, Ellen, “Hands-on Case Study–The Problem: Zippo Has a Strong Brand Name, but Stagnant Sales. Can the Fabled Firm Market Its Way Out of the Doldrums?,” Inc., September 2004, pp. 42, 44.

    Poore, David, Zippo: The Great American Lighter, Atglen, Pa.: Shiffer, 1997, 216 p.

    Schellhammer, Marcie, “Counterfeiting of Zippo Lighters in China Affecting Bradford,” Bradford (Pa.) Era, August 3, 2004.

    Sheehan, Charles, “Zippo Fired Up over Cheap Chinese Lighter Knockoffs,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 3, 2004, p. C9.

    Sorkin, Andrew Ross, “Ketchum’s Challenge Is How to Remake the Zippo As Something Other Than a Cigarette Lighter,” New York Times, March 18, 1999, p. C7.

    Spangler, Todd, “Zippo Gets Tough on Lighter Pirates,” Harrisburg (Pa.) Patriot, February 25, 2003, p. D6.

    Stranahan, Susan Q., “Zippo Makes a Comeback,” Fortune, September 8, 1997, pp. 40+.

    Teather, David, “Old Flame Still Burning,” Guardian (London), January 29, 2005, p. 30.

    “Zippo: A History of Progress,” Bradford, Pa.: Zippo Manufacturing Company, 1995.

    “The Zippo Lighter Collector’s Guide,” Bradford, Pa.: Zippo Manufacturing Company, 1996.

    — David E. Salamie

     
  • Nyenius 1:48 pm on March 30, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: ,   

    Finally, the Backup Completed Sucksesfully… 

    And so the story goes…

    Akhirnya, backup selesai, dengan sangat smooth setelah gue posting artikel sebelum ini (cloning my hard drive). Mungkin Tuhan menganggap gue sudah pantas untuk melakukan backup di windows 7, jadinya digampangin (jiah, bawa-bawa tuhan).

    Jadi setelah gue posting itu artikel, dan seusai baca manual di sevenforum.c0m, ini langkah-langkah yang gue lakukan.

    1. Membuat  backup langsung ke hardisk eksternal (56 GB, about 1 hour).
    2. Mematikan komputer.
    3. Cabut hd 1, hd 2 dijadiin master. Memastikan HD eksternal sudah tercolok sebelum PC dinyalakan.
    4. Nyalain komputer, F12 untuk pilih menu boot, booting dari cd rom (windows repair disk).
    5. Pilih layout keyboard, ikutin wizardnya, dan backup pun berjalan lancar sampai minta restart.
    6. Windows dinyalakan, dan berhasil sudah gue meng-klon isi sistem lama ke HD baru.

    Walau begitu, karena yang gue recovery itu hanya drive C aja, sedangkan di hd 1 itu ada drive C dan D. Maka begitu masuk ke OS di hard disk baru itu ada beberapa shortcut / alamat file dan direktori yang mengarah ke drive D yang hilang. Jadi gue cukup mengkopi file-file dari drive D lama ke drive D baru.

    Selain itu, begitu hd 1 gue colok lagi sebagai slave, dan windows nyala. Ternyata hd 1 tidak termount, dikarenakan ada konflik properties C-nya hd 1 dan C-nya hd 2 (yang baru). Gue coba change letter drive pake easeus partition, ternyata gak bisa, karena kondisi hd 1 offline dan begitu mau di online-kan bentrok sama hard disk yang lagi online.

    Akhirnya gue restart, masuk ke repair disk lagi dan pake fungsi DISKPART-nya windows untuk ngaktifin automount. Setelah itu, restart masuk ke windows lagi dan tinggal ganti-ganti drive letter hd 1 menjadi E dan F.

    Dan ada satu hal aneh lagi, tiba-tiba saja Norton 360 bilang bahwa virus definition-nya hilang! Jadi harus update lagi dari nol. Wekekekeke, aneh.

    Beberapa catatan kecil soal menggunakan Windows System Image Backup:

    1. Jangan sembarangan merubah nama folder tempat system image backup disimpan, kecuali kita mau nyimpan lebih dari satu system image.
    2. Jangan sembarangan memindahkan backup image direktori.
      Jadi kalau mau restore system image dari hard disk eksternal, ya backuplah ke hard disk eksternal dari awal. Jangan backup ke hardisk internal terus di copy paste ke hard disk eksternal, it won’t work. Gue gak yakin apa sebabnya.

      Sepertinya Windows mencatat path/alamat file backupnya, jadi kalo dipindahin ya keder dia. Selain itu di wizard restore imagenya, gak ada tuh tombol semacam ‘browse system image’ yang memungkinkan kita menunjukkan dimana si file backup berada. Auto-detect lah ceritanya.

    3. Ada baiknya baca manualnya dulu, terutama dari link yang gue kasih di artikel sebelum ini.
    4. SANGAT DISARANKAN untuk membuat system image backup ini, begitu Anda selesai menginstall windows.
      Atau bisa juga setelah Anda selesai menginstall-install ‘software-software wajib’ Anda (seperti MS word … etc.). Jadi kalo ke depannya terjadi sesuatu dengan sistem Windows Anda, tinggal recovery ke kondisi sistem ketika image itu dibuat.
     
  • Nyenius 12:55 am on March 30, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , hardisk,   

    Cloning my Hard Drive 

    Hufff, duhhh, beberapa hari dipusingin sama desktop PC, mau clone HD malah jadi muter2, ini gak tau socket SATA motherboard-nya kendor apa gimana, heran.

    Jadi setelah sekian lama menggunakan hardisk 2nd yang sering dilanda mati lampu mendadak, gue mulai merasa performance PC mulai turun. Setelah mempertimbangkan ini-itu, gue pun beli UPS dan satu buah hardisk baru sebesar hardisk sebelumnya (500 GB).

    Gue mau jadiin itu hardisk baru sebagai ‘tuan tanah’ (master), dan hardisk lama sebagai ‘budak’ (slave). Untuk itu gue mesti clone HD lama ke HD baru. Gue belum pernah melakukan clone hardisk sebelumnya, jadi butuh beberapa waktu untuk cari tahu. Re temen gue yang pernah clone HD menyarankan pake norton ghost portable, tanpa memberi link atau saran akan versi tertentu.

    Dibantu lambatnya speed spidi, gue pun coba download Norton Ghost versi 14 dari indowebster (karena yang versi 15 kebanyakan dari host luar). Setelah 2 jam menanti, gue install tuh Nghost 14, dan langsung disambut dialog box bahwa aplikasi itu gak kompatibel dengan Win 7, tapi gue pake aja terus. Gue ‘Copy My Hard Drive’. Selesai, restart, gak mau booting itu hardisk yang baru diclone. Malah mengalami beberapa kali gagal booting.

    Sampe akhirnya gue bertemu Windows System Image Backup, gue pake itu dan beberapa kali gagal juga. Jadi gini:

    1. Gue punya 2 HD. hardisk lama ( hd 1), hardisk baru (hd 2).
    2. Gue bikin image backup di hd 2, terus shutdown.
    3. Gue copot hd 1, dan cuma colok hd 2, nyalain, boot ke dvd instalasi 7. Ternyata harus bikin rescue disk sendiri, gak bisa pake cd instalasi. Matiin lagi.
    4. Gue colok lagi hd 1, booting. Bikin rescue disk. Shutdown lagi.
    5. Gue copot hd 1, nyalain, masuk ke rescue disk. Ikutin wizardnya restore backup, dan berakhir dengan pesan: “Backup tidak dapat dilakukan, karena file image berada pada hardisk yang akan direstore.” KAMPRET.
    6. Gue matiin, nyalain, backup ke hd 1. (nunggu 1 jam an). Shutdown.
    7. Nyalain kompie dengan 2 hardisk tercolok. Masuk ke boot rescue disk. Ikutin wizard sampe akhirnya kedetek itu imagenya dan siap untuk direcovery. Tapi muncul pertanyaan: “Ini bakal nimpa kemana????” UASU! Langsung gue shutdown lagi.
    8. Nyalain, backup ke HD eksternal (WD mybook). Matiin, cabut hd 1, nyalain, masuk lagi ke rescue disk, kali ini gak ada backup image ke detek……..

    Dan kepusingan itu masih berlanjut sampe sekarang….. ini lagi coba cara lain…. baru dapet manual dari :

    1. http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/675-system-image-recovery.html?filter
    2. http://www.sevenforums.com/backup-restore/147157-win-7-image-restore.html
    3. http://www.sevenforums.com/backup-restore/39023-using-system-image-new-hard-disk.html
    4. http://www.sevenforums.com/backup-restore/130186-create-system-image-restore-new-hard-drive.html

     

    ****ini posting buat pengguna win 7. Linux, mac dan sebangsanya mungkin punya fitur lebih canggih.

    UPDATE : hasil akhir effort clone hard disk ini beserta kesimpulan-kesimpulannya ada di posting Finally the Backup Completed Sucksesfully.

     
  • Nyenius 8:43 am on March 29, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , puisi katarsis, puisi perenungan   

    Sedikit Kisah dan Secercah Kilau 

    Sedikit hati bagi yang tak memiliki

    Sedikit bumi bagi yang tak berpijak

    Sedikit hangat bagi yang membeku

    Sedikit cinta bagi yang kehilangan

     

    Secercah cahaya bagi yang kelam

    Secercah harapan bagi yang putus asa

    Secercah angin sejuk bagi yang gelisah

    Secercah sentuhan bagi yang ketakutan

     

    Sedikit sakit untukku yang lupa diri

    Secercah senyum untukku yang tak berwajah

     

     

     
  • Nyenius 4:29 am on March 28, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , zippo history, , ,   

    Born out of perfect Faith: The beginning of Zippo 

    The Small enterprise association states that over 90% of businesses fail within their first year of execution and a greater quantum of those enterprises still in enterprise unfortunately cease to exist within just three short years. The birth of the Zippo Lighter effectively summarizes just how hard enterprise success is to fetch and George G. Blaisdell, the founder of Zippo can only be sumarized as a enterprise inspiration for all entrepreneurs!

    George G. Blaisdell’s adolescent years can best be described as alternative and strong-willed. Mr. Blaisdell assuredly hated school and decided in his 5th year of elementary school that he would no longer attend. George’s father any way tried to force him in the right path by sending him to the troops academy but unfortunately lost the battle just two years later when George Blaisdell was dismissed from the institution. Over the years that followed George Blaisdell would gain necessary traits that would aid him in his greatest accomplishment yet by ultimately taking over the Blaisdell Machinary Company. In 1920 George made a very wise move and sold the enterprise investing the money into oil booming success in the Roaring 20′s. Success any way only lasted a few short years as the Great Depression annihilated the Oil industry retention the Blaisdell house retention on by a thread.

    Zippo

    Torchured by the hardships of the depression George Blaisdell one day observed his friend awkwardly try to use an Austrailian-made lighter. George noticed that the lighter worked highly well in windy conditions because of the fabricate but lacked due to it requiring two hands to light up and an assuredly bended metal frame. George Blaisdell soon after redesigned the lighter making it rectangular with a chimney fabricate easy to control due to the cover being attached with a henge. Early in 1933 the first Zippo Lighter which is currently displayed at the Zippo Headquarters in Bradford, Pa was born. Mr. Blaisdell decided to call his new fabricate “Zippo” because he favored the distinction of the word “zipper”. The first patent was applied for in 1934 and was obtained two years later followed by a second patent in 1950. Mr Blaisdell always stood behind the reliability of his lighters that began retailing at .95 each by offering his Zippo Lifetime Guarentee which to this day is still guarenteed with every Zippo Oil Lighter.

    Zippo took a very rough start in the Depression but became an American Icon when the troops Black Crackle Lighter was taken up by millions of American Soldiers. From there on out Zippo became an American fastener and a darling to the entire nation. After the war in 1947 Mr. Blaisdell created the Zippo Car which to this day continues to be success as it travels around tour all over the United States. In 1962 Zippo created a special fabricate modification of it’s former model that would be specially designed for woman called the “slim” Zippo Lighter.

    Over the next few decades as the enterprise passes from George Blaisdell down to his children Zippo will have collected some estimated four million collectors worldwide straight through dissimilar promotions and collections in music, sports, broadway, art, etc. Modern Milestones comprise the 1997 chance date of the Zippo Case Museum which is currently the most visited museum in Northern Pennsylvania and the 425th millionth artificial lighter milestone in 2006. Zippo’s Success has come to be so allinclusive that a Modern Awareness examine showed that 98% of the world is aware of the Zippo Lighter and with the company’s continued success no one has payed a dime as promised for the repair of any zippo lighter.

    Born out of perfect Faith: The beginning of Zippo

    My Links : arowana ปลาสวยงาม ตู้ปลา

     
  • Nyenius 9:16 am on March 27, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: division insignia, unit crests, , zippo lighters, Zippo Manufacturing Company   

    Zippo: Definition from Answers.com 

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    Zippo Manufacturing Comp

    Zippo.svg
    Type
    Private
    Genre
    Lighter manufacturer
    Founded
    1932
    Founder(s)
    George G. Blaisdell
    Headquarters
    Bradford, Pennsylvania, U.S
    Website
    zippo.com


    Zippo’s flint-wheel Ignition at work


    A lit 1968 slim model Zippo


    An open full-size Navy Zippo


    Brass-based case design with matched insert coloring

    A Zippo lighter is a refillable, metal lighter manufactured by Zippo Manufacturing Company of Bradford, Pennsylvania, U.S.[1] Thousands of different styles and designs have been made in the seven decades since their introduction including military ones for specific regiments.

    Company history

    Establishment

    George G. Blaisdell founded Zippo Manufacturing Company in 1932, and produced the first Zippo lighter in early 1933, being inspired by an Austrian cigarette lighter of similar design. It got its name because Blaisdell liked the sound of the word “zipper” and “zippo” sounded more modern. On March 3, 1936, patent was granted for the Zippo lighter.[2]

    Zippo lighters became popular in the United States military, especially during World War II — when, as the company’s Web site says, Zippo “ceased production of lighters for consumer markets and dedicated all manufacturing to the U.S. military.” [3] The Zippo at that time was made of brass, but as this commodity was unobtainable due to the war, Zippo used steel during the war years. While the Zippo Manufacturing Company never had an official contract with the military, soldiers and armed forces personnel insisted that Base exchange (BX) stores carry this sought-after lighter.[4][5] While it had previously been common to have Zippos with authorized badges, unit crests and division insignia, it became popular among the American soldiers of the Vietnam War, to get their Zippos engraved with personal mottos. These lighters are now sought after collectors items and popular souvenirs for visitors to Vietnam.[6]

    After World War II, the Zippo lighter became increasingly used in advertising by companies large and small through the 1960s.[7] Many of the early advertising Zippo lighters are works of art painted by hand, and as technology has evolved, so has the design and finish of the Zippo lighter. The basic mechanism of the Zippo lighter has remained unchanged.

    In 2002 Zippo expanded its product line to include a variety of utility-style multi-purpose lighters, known as the Zippo MPL. This was followed in 2005 with the Outdoor Utility Lighter, known as the OUL. These lighters are fueled with butane. In August 2007 Zippo released a new butane lighter called the Zippo BLU.[8]

    A museum called Zippo/Case visitors center is located in Bradford, Pennsylvania at 1932 Zippo Drive. This 15,000 square foot (1398 m²) building contains rare and custom made Zippo lighters, and also sells the entire Zippo line. The museum was featured on the NPR program Weekend Edition Sunday on January 25, 2009. The museum also contains an enormous collection of Case knives. Since the Zippo company’s 60th anniversary in 1992, annual editions have been produced for worldwide Zippo collectors.

    From 1949 to 2002 Zippos were also produced in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada.[9] Since 1933, over 400,000,000 Zippo lighters have been produced.

    In 2009, Zippo announced plans to purchase Ronson Consumer Products Corporation, a long-time competitor in the lighter market.[10] On February 3, 2010, the deal was finalized.[11]

    March 2011: Due to significant decrease of sales from 18 million lighter a year in the mid-1990s to about 12 million lighters this year related with pressure increasing on folks not to smoke, Zippo Manufacturing Co. will try offering a wider variety of products using Zippo brands such as watches, leisure clothing and cologne. This strategy is similar with a success of Victorinox Swiss Army Brands Inc. has had selling watches, luggage, clothing and fragrance.[12]

    Usage

    Besides having gained popularity as “windproof” lighters, Zippo lighters are able to stay lit in harsh weather, due to the design of the windscreen and adequate rate of fuel delivery. As such, until recently they were highly popular with backpackers and within the military. Professional backpackers (operating in the wilderness) have however now turned away from the regular Zippo lighter in favor of butane lighters, heavy-duty matches, and ferrocerium rods. Many high-altitude and cold weather backpackers still prefer Zippo lighters because butane lighters are less reliable in cold weather.

    A consequence of the windproofing is that it is hard to extinguish a Zippo by blowing out the flame. However, if the flame is blown from the top down, it will easily be extinguished. The proper way to extinguish the lighter is to close the top half, which starves the flame of oxygen, but unlike other lighters, this does not cut the fuel. One of the recognizable features of Zippo is the fact that it burns with a wick. Opening the top lid produces an easily recognizable clicking sound for which Zippo lighters are known, and a different, but similar click can be heard when the lighter is closed. This noise is produced by the cam, a little lever that keeps the lid closed or opened securely, which is intended to keep the lid closed when not in use.

    Price

    Current Zippos carry a suggested retail price between US$12.95 up to US$8,675.95 for the 18k solid gold model.[13] In 2001, according to the fall 2003 issue of IUP Magazine, a 1933 model was purchased for $18,000 at a swap meet in Tokyo, and in 2002 the company bought one valued at $12,000 for its own collection.[14] During the 2007 75th anniversary celebrations, Zippo sold a near mint 1933 model for $37,000.[15]

    All Zippo lighters carry a limited lifetime guarantee, promoted using the trademarked phrase “It works or we fix it for free.” The corporate web site boasts: “In almost 75 years, no one has ever spent a cent on the mechanical repair of a Zippo lighter regardless of the lighter’s age or condition.”[16]

    Zippo dates

    From mid-1955 Zippo started year coding their lighters by the use of dots (.). From 1966 until 1973 the year code was denoted by combinations of vertical lines (|). From 1974 until 1981 the coding comprised combinations of forward slashes (/), and from 1982 until June 1986 the coding was by backslash ().

    In July 1986, Zippo began including a lot code on all lighters showing the month and year of production. On the left of the underside was stamped a letter A–L, denoting the month (A = January, B = February, C = March, etc.). On the right was a Roman numeral which denoted the year, beginning with II in 1986. Thus a Zippo stamped H IX was made in August, 1993. However in 2001, Zippo altered this system, changing the Roman numerals to more conventional Arabic numerals. Thus a Zippo made in August 2004 was stamped H 04. There was a myth that Zippo lighters were made by prisoners, and the number identified the prisoner, or their crime and sentence length.[17] Another myth was that a Zippo stamped ‘H’ was inferior to one stamped ‘A’.[17]

    Construction

    The cases of Zippo lighters are typically made of metal and are rectangular with a hinged top. On most models, the top of the case is slightly curved.

    Inside the case are the works of the lighter: the spring-toggle lever that keeps the top closed, the wick, windscreen chimney, thumbwheel, and flint, all of which are mounted on an open-bottom metal box that is slightly smaller than the bottom of the outer case, and into which it slips snugly.

    The hollow part of the interior box encloses a rayon batt which is in contact with the wick. The fuel, light petroleum distillate or synthetic isoparaffinic hydrocarbon (commonly referred to as lighter fluid or naphtha), is poured into the batt, which traps it. It also contains a tube that holds a short, cylindrical flint. The tube has an interior spring and exterior cap-screw that keeps the flint in constant contact with the exterior thumb-wheel. Spinning this rough-surfaced wheel against flint results in a spark that ignites the fluid in the wick.

    The batt once had a small hole in the bottom to facilitate easier refueling. It was often used as a place to store extra flints. Newer models do not always have the hole, and instead have a flap in the bottom of the batt (with the hinge on one of the short edges). The words “LIFT TO FILL” are stamped in black ink multiple times on the bottom, with the intention being that the user should lift the flap and squirt the fuel in to the batt material under the flap.[18]

    All parts of the lighter are replaceable. In all there are 22 parts, and the Zippo lighter requires 108 manufacturing operations.

    Zippo in Popular Culture

    Zippo lighters are often included in films and modern movies. Usually popularized by famous villains and heroes. The Zippo lighter was re-introduced to a new generation when it was featured in the 1988 action-flick Die Hard, in which the main character recovers a zippo off of an enemy terrorist early in the movie. The zippo is featured in several classic scenes, it also helps reference the modern film back to western style themed movies of the 1950s and early 1960s.

    Zippo lighters are often featured in crime sagas, usually owned by a distinguished character within the movie. The classic and infamous sound of zippo opening closing, and igniting can be synonymous with the introduction of a very important character in these movies.

    A zippo lighter was also an important plot device in the 1994 film Four Rooms. The memorable scene takes place in a hotel room where a famous hollywood producer places a high-stakes bet with an anonymous party-goer that he cannot light his zippo lighter ten times in a row. This particular scene is referred to as the best in the entire movie.

    Zippo lighters have become standard accessories for many celebrities as well. Actor/Comedian Denis Leary uses a zippo lighter during his 1992/1993 comedy tour “No Cure for Cancer”. Leary would present his satirical rants while holding/smoking a lit cigarette. The taped performance introduction has Leary walking up to the microphone, putting the cigarette into his mouth, and lighting it with a zippo lighter, the only audible noise being the zippo opening, igniting, and closing. Leary has carried the Zippo tradition to his television show Rescue Me, in which his ex-wife’s new boyfriend steals Leary’s beloved FDNY Zippo lighter.

    The Zippo BLU

    Zippo released the Zippo BLU in 2007. It is a butane torch lighter, which Zippo has gone to great lengths to make sure is still “identifiable as a Zippo”. Specifically, the lid and cam were “tuned” so that the lighter still makes the distinctive “Zippo click” and also that it is one of the only butane torch lighters that uses a flint and striker wheel.

    Zippo subsidiaries

    In addition to its recent purchase of the Ronson brand in the U.S. and Canada, Zippo also owns W.R. Case and Sons Cutlery Company, Bradford, PA, Zippo U.K., Ltd., London, England, and Zippo Fashion Italia, Vicenza, Italy.

    See also

    • Zippo Manufacturing Co. v. Zippo Dot Com, Inc.

    Footnotes

    1. ^ David Lander “The Buyable Past,” American Heritage, February/March 2006.
    2. ^ U.S. Patent 2,032,695
    3. ^ The story of the Zippo Manufacturing Company at the company’s website
    4. ^ Zippo Companion by Avi Baer and Alexander Neumark (Hardcover – Dec 15, 2000) 192 pages Publisher: Compendium Publishing. ISBN 1906347131. ISBN 978-1906347130
    5. ^ An American Legend Zippo: a Collector’s Companion by Avi R; Neumark, Alexander Baer (Hardcover – 1999)
    6. ^ Sherry Buchanan and Bradford Edwards, Vietnam Zippos:American Soldiers’ Engravings and Stories, 1965—1973. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
    7. ^ Paulette Dininny, “Keepers of the Flame: After Big Sales in World War II and Parts in Old Movies, Zippos Are Still Around, Often as hot Collector’s Items,” Smithsonian, vol. 29, no. 9 (December 1998), pg. 44.
    8. ^ [1] – Zippo Blu press release
    9. ^ Zippo.ca — Welcome to Zippo Canada
    10. ^ Zippo Announces Plans for Ronson Acquisition
    11. ^ [2]
    12. ^ http://hosted2.ap.org/NYKIN/APOdd/Article_2011-03-20-Zippo-More%20Than%20Lighters/id-5085b8c4ab684f1099cd38e2449b584c
    13. ^ http://www.zippocasemuseum.com/index.aspx?tabindex=0tabid=1directoryid=-1ctrl=productdetailsproductid=60
    14. ^ Zippo’s Czar (brief profile of the company’s top executive, with two photographs)
    15. ^ http://www.zippo.com/75years/auction/anniversaryAuctionItems.aspx#item34
    16. ^ Zippo History
    17. ^ a b The Zippo lighter collectors’ guide – Zippo myths (page 4)
    18. ^ Zippo users manual

    Further reading

    • Rose Chun, “Snap That Top: The Zippo Lighter Dwells in American Legend as an Icon of Machismo and Quality,” Cigar Aficionado, vol. 2, no. 2 (Winter 1993/94), pp. 72–79.

    External links


    Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Zippo

     
  • Nyenius 8:46 pm on March 25, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , ,   

    Lighter Side of Counterfeiting Puts Zippo in a Fix 

    (Wall Street Journal) – “Always works — or we fix it” has, with minor tinkering, been a Zippo lighter slogan since 1937 and means the company needs to fix a lot of lighters, but fulfilling the forever guarantee would pose little challenge if a huge number of Zippos did not happen to be “rippos,” The Wall Street Journal reported Friday.

    The task of fixing the lighters falls to three “clinics” — one in Zippo’s hometown of Bradford, Pa., and two outside the US, which fix more than 100,000 a year. Quite a few Zippos get mangled when they slip out of pockets into the mechanism of recliners. Usually, a new screw or spring will put it back in working order.

    Factories in China, the company estimated, make 12 million fake Zippos a year. Zippo’s only plant makes 12 million real ones. Rippos, as Zippo fans call them, used to be junk that sold for about two dollars, while Zippo’s average was $20.

    But like a lot of other things in China, rippo workmanship keeps improving. Now a high-class rippo goes for $10. If China can replicate hard disks, it can certainly fake an object with 22 parts based on a 1936 patent.

    Now, even Zippo itself must look twice to tell the difference between counterfeits and its own product.

    “What’s concerning is the quality,” Zippo CEO Greg Booth said. “Ten years ago, fakes were a cinch to spot. They’re getting better because our consumers want genuine Zippos. They aren’t so easy to hoodwink.”

    And when a counterfeit plague and free repair merge in a single product, the result is a repair shop merged with a crime lab. Zippo is not about to fix rippos, so someone has to decide which is which.

    “It can take a minute to decipher some counterfeits, which is scary,” said Zippo worker Connie Woods.

    Examples of giveaways include: The 12 letters “A” through “L” stand for the months on a Zippo date stamp and other letters flag a fake. True chimneys have 16 holes. Zippo rivets are steel, not brass; the flint eyelet is brass, not steel. Strike wheels are cut in a houndstooth pattern, and the edge of the flint screw’s head must be knurled.

    Publicizing such giveaways, of course, lets counterfeiters in on them, too. In the ensuing game, Zippo tickles its designs — and then the fakers tickle theirs. Zippo patented a new rib for its insert not long ago and cut new teeth on its strike wheel. “We make an improvement,” said Booth. “They catch up.”

    But now, Zippo’s president whispered, “we’re putting something in among the parts that we know they can’t find.”

    Read more: Wall Street Journal

     
  • Nyenius 4:32 pm on March 25, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , ,   

    Introducing Ebony Windproof Lighters by Zippo 

    Introducing Ebony Windproof Lighters By Zippo

    Ebony Windproof Lighters By ZippoEbony Windproof Lighters By Zippo

    Containing the latest technology from Nasa, one of the world’s most trusted and recognised brands reveals a sleek new lighter to delight Zippo collectors and new fans alike. Ebony BLU, by Zippo,  provides a striking mirror-like black finish and reflects the timeless style of this iconic lighter brand.

    The Ebony BLU lighter is chrome-plated and bonded with a micro-thin, scratch resistant coating to achieve a rich, intense, glossy finish. Its gorgeous ebony surface exudes refinement and quality,  adding a touch of classic elegance to any look.

    Ebony is part of the Zippo BLU range, which uses a patented two-stage burner technology.  Unlike Zippo’s traditional windproof lighters, which produce a yellow flame, the Zippo BLU range  delivers a hot, consistent and odourless blue flame, fuelled with Zippo butane gas.

    Ebony BLU is just one of an amazing array of lighters from the number one name in flame. Zippo’s Classic and BLU lighters are available in a huge selection of different finishes and designs; from chrome to solid armour, metallic brights to matte pastels and sterling silver to pure gold: there is a Zippo lighter to suit every personality, every outfit and every mood.

    Zippo lighters feature the same reliable design as the original 1930s model, including the trademark flint wheel ignition system, rugged metal construction, hinged lid, one-hand operation and the distinctive ‘click’ that has made the Zippo lighter legendary since 1932.


     

     
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